they were all pardoned and very few people were even tried for treason. There's a quote from William Seward that's pretty apt: "Make no expressions of harshness or disrespect, or even impatience concerning the seceding States, their agents, or their people, [those States] must always continue to be, equal and honored members of this Federal Union, [their citizens] still are and always must be our kindred and countrymen." The United States government never declared war on those "kindred and countrymen" in the Confederacy, but conducted its military efforts beginning with a presidential proclamation issued April 15, 1861. It called for troops to recapture forts and suppress what Lincoln later called an "insurrection and rebellion". I'm merely reporting what I've read. Personally I don't give a shit one way or the other whether they were rebels or traitors, the whole point of reviving this thread was that the defacing of statues is escalating. It started with confederate statues and progressed to fucking Thomas Jefferson and Teddy Roosevelt statues.